Raised blood glucose levels (more than 10mmol/l)
The amount of a substance (solute) in a solution
The biochemical process by which the cells in the body releases energy
A polysaccharide, (C6H10O5)n, that is stored in the liver and in muscles and can be converted back into glucose when needed by the body.
A hormone produced by the pancreas. It causes the liver to convert glycogen back to glucose and to release glucose into the bloodstream.
To confirm diabetes, a person will normally take a glucose tolerance test in a hospital.
Patients do not eat for 12 hours before the test. This gets their blood glucose to its lowest level. They are then given a drink containing 75g of glucose and their blood glucose level is monitored over the next two hours.
Diabetics will rapidly become hyperglycaemic. Their blood glucose level rises and remains above normal.
Healthy individuals will release insulin to store the excess glucose. Their blood glucose level rises but then returns to normal.
Blood glucose in the diabetic rises and stays above normal.
The healthy person regulates their glucose back to normal.
Every cell in the body needs a supply of glucose to maintain respiration and generate energy for all of its processes. Levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood are closely controlled by two hormones; insulin and glucagon.
Use the animation to see how the body responds to high and low blood sugar levels:
Drag the responses into the correct columns
|Blood sugar too high||Blood sugar too low|