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Dehydration

The state of the body when it does not have enough water.

Vomiting

Food forced out of the mouth from the stomach when it is irritated or infected.

Bacteria

Single-celled organism. Has a cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm. Its DNA is loosely-coiled in the cytoplasm and there is no distinct nucleus

Mineral

Chemical needed in very small amounts as part of a balanced diet to keep the body healthy

Faeces

The waste material left at the end of the digestive process made up of undigested food, dead cells, bacteria and water

Gut

A common term for the digestive system.

Food poisoning

Food poisoning is an infection of your intestines caused by bacteria such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli (E. coli). They attack the lining of the gut and you vomit out any food you take in. Also water cannot  be reabsorbed by the infected large intestines resulting in liquid diarrhoea.

Food poisoning is usually picked up by contact with someone who is already infected, or by eating contaminated food (or water). For example raw or undercooked shellfish grown in waters contaminated by sewage,  or someone with the virus preparing food without washing their hands after using the bathroom. Bacterial food poisoning can easily be caught as a result of eating reheated meat dishes or poorly cooked and raw eggs if they are infected with bacteria such as Salmonella or E coli. Flies can carry the bacteria which cause food poisoning onto the food after they have laid eggs or fed on faeces

bacteria can grow on food stored at room temperature

This food looks wonderful but it could easily be covered in the microorganisms which can cause food poisoning

Symptoms

The main symptoms of food poisoning include
• violent abdominal cramps and pain
• feeling nauseous, vomiting or often both
• watery diarrhoea which does not usually have blood in it.
• slight fever
• general muscle aches and headache

Symptoms usually develop within one to three days of picking up the infection. Often the infection only lasts a 24-48 hours but in severe cases the symptoms can last for up to 10 days. When this happens dehydration and lack of mineral salts which result from the vomiting and diarrhoea can make you very ill indeed. Healthy people usually recover without any complications but for babies and old people gut infections can be deadly. World wide, more children die from vomiting and diarrhoea than any other disease. Dehydration happens happens more quickly in small children and the elderly, and affects them more seriously, than it does a young adult.

Treatment

Unfortunately, there’s no specific medical treatment for gastroenteritis. It is often caused by viruses. Even if the disease is shown to be bacterial, doctors don’t usually prescribe antibiotics unless the major body systems start to fail. This is partly because the drugs will immediately leave the body with the vomiting and diarrhoea. Also overusing antibiotics can lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.  Antibiotics also destroy the healthy gut bacteria. Over-the-counter remedies will stop the diarrhoea, but it is better not to use them because they will just make you infectious for longer.Concentrate on making yourself more comfortable and preventing dehydration while you recover.

The best way to prevent the spread of gut infections is to follow some common-sense precautions.
• Always wash your hands thoroughly after using the toilet, and before preparing or eating food.
• Make sure you know that the water you drink and use to wash salad food and fruit is clean and safe.
• Avoid eating meat, eggs, shellfish etc which are undercooked or raw.
• If you have to nurse or visit someone with Salmonellosis or E coli infection, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water afterwards.