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Carbohydrase

Enzymes which breaks down carbohydrates into simple sugars

Amino acid

The basic building blocks of proteins. There are twenty amino acids used, in different combinations, to make every protein required by the human body.

Digestion

Breaking down the large insoluble food molecules into small soluble molecules

Protease

Enzymes which break down proteins into amino acids

Glycerol

A chemical which is a building block of lipids.

Lipase

Enzymes which break down lipids into fatty acids and glycerol

Lipid

Molecules which contain a lot of stored energy built up of fatty acids and glycerol. Lipids include oils and fats

Starch

A complex carbohydrate made as an energy store plants

Pepsin

A protein-digesting enzyme found in the mammalian stomach.

Enzymes in digestion

In the digestive system enzymes break down large insoluble molecules (e.g. starch, proteins and fats) into small soluble molecules that can be absorbed into the blood from the small intestines.

Large Insoluble Molecule Type of Enzyme Small Soluble Product
Carbohydrate (e.g. Starch) Carbohydrase Simple Sugars (e.g. glucose)
Protein Protease (e.g. pepsin) Amino Acids
Fat/Lipids Lipase Glycerol and Fatty Acids

You can learn more about the role of enzymes in digestion in the Digestion topic