A genetic kidney disease where the kidneys become enlarged and covered in fluid filled cysts
A hormone which controls how fast new red blood cells are made
Medicine that acts against bacterial infections. Penicillin is an example of an antibiotic.
The process of replacing a damaged or diseased organ with a healthy organ from a dead or living donor.
High frequency sound which cannot be heard by human beings
Inflammation of the kidneys which may be caused by infection by bacteria.
The process of cleansing the blood through a dialysis machine after the kidneys have failed
Single-celled organism. Has a cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm. Its DNA is loosely-coiled in the cytoplasm and there is no distinct nucleus
Sometimes the kidneys become inflamed. This is called nephritis. It may be because the kidneys have become infected by bacteria - if so, it can be treated by antibiotics.
Kidney stones are hard mineral deposits formed in the kidney. They can pass into the urine and larger ones may stick in the ureter. Kidney stones can be very painful.
The stones can be smashed into smaller pieces using ultrasound. Then the pieces are passed out of the body in the urine.
Serious kidney disease may stop the kidneys working properly. When both kidneys stop working, this is kidney failure. Kidney failure can also be caused by injury, high blood pressure, poisoning or dehydration.
If the kidneys don't work, waste products build up in the bloodstream and the person will die without treatment. Treatment must replace the functions of the kidneys to remove waste and balance the water and salt levels of the blood. At the moment there are two types of treatment which can replace these kidney functions - either dialysis or a transplant.