Breaking down glucose (food) without oxygen to provide available energy for the cells. The glucose reacts with oxygen to produce energy in the form of ATP with carbon dioxide and water as waste products
Groups of pancreatic cells which make the hormones such as insulin which control the blood sugar levels.
The organ system in the body which breaks down large insoluble food molecules into small soluble molecules which can be used by the body
Energy producing organic compounds which are made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Examples of food containing carbohydrate are rice, pasta, bread and potatoes
The biochemical process by which the cells in the body releases energy
Breaking down the large insoluble food molecules into small soluble molecules
A polysaccharide, (C6H10O5)n, that is stored in the liver and in muscles and can be converted back into glucose when needed by the body.
An endocrine gland which produces insulin
A chemical messenger produced by a particular gland or cells of the endocrine system. Hormones are transported throughout the body in the blood stream but they produce a response only in specific target cells
The main organ of the central nervous system made up mainly of grey matter
A large organ in the upper abdomen which manufactures, stores and breaks down substances as required by the body
A structure with a particular function which is made up of different tissues.
When you digest a meal, particularly one which is high in carbohydrate foods such as bread, pasta and cakes, the level of glucose in your blood rises. Glucose is important to the cells of the body, particularly the brain and the muscles, as an energy source for cellular respiration. If you don't eat for a long time or take a lot of exercise the blood sugar levels could fall dangerously low. It is important that the level of glucose in your blood (often called the blood sugar level) is controlled so that it does not rise too high or fall too low. This control is brought about by the pancreas, an organ which makes enzymes for the digestive system and hormones to control the blood glucose levels.
When your blood sugar levels fall below the ideal level your pancreas releases a different hormone called glucagon. Glucagon makes your liver break down glycogen, converting it back into glucose which can be used by the cells.