Antibodies all made from a single clone of specialist cells used in both medical diagnostics and treatments
Lymphocytes made in the bone marrow that are found both in the lymph glands of the body and free in the blood once they mature.
Treatment of disease using X-rays or radioactive substances which kill cells
Hybridoma cells are formed by fusing a specific antibody-producing cell with a type of cancer cell that grows well in tissue culture
A chemical messenger produced by a particular gland or cells of the endocrine system. Hormones are transported throughout the body in the blood stream but they produce a response only in specific target cells
A swelling made up of a mass of abnormal cells which keep multiplying in an uncontrolled way.
A mass of abnormal cells which keep multiplying in an uncontrolled way.
A group of cells in an organism that are specialised to work together to carry out a particular function.
An organism that is genetically identical to its parent.
The liquid which leaves your body through the urethra. It contains water, salts urea and other chemicals.
Hormone made by the early embryo as it implants in the uterus and used in pregnancy tests to indicate pregnancy
Vaccines are not the only form of medical treatment which relies on the immune system.
Monoclonal antibodies are antibodies which are made to target particular cells or chemicals in the body. Some lymphocytes (called B lymphocytes) make antibodies but cannot divide. Scientists combine mouse B lymphocytes which have been stimulated to make a particular antibody with a type of tumour cell to make a cell called a hybridoma.
Hybridoma cells can both make a specific antibody and divide. The hybridoma cells are cloned to make a large number of identical cells which all make the same antibodies. The antibodies are collected and purified. These are monoclonal antibodies - antibodies from a single clone of cells
Making monoclonal antibodies
A positive pregnancy test - they are so sensitive that they can be taken on the first day of a missed period.
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