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The animation shows an overview of how genetic engineering can be used to produce human insulin. The enzymes involved are shown in the lower animation.
Human insulin is produced in a very controlled and sterile environment.
Genetically-engineered bacteria are grown in large stainless steel fermentation vessels. The vessel contains all the nutrients needed for growth.
When the fermentation is complete, the mixture containing the bacteria is removed from the fermentation vessel. The bacteria are filtered off and broken open to release the insulin they have produced. The insulin is separated from all the other proteins and organelles from inside the bacteria and once purified it is packaged for distribution.
All the equipment is kept sterile to prevent contamination and regular checks make sure that the insulin meets the required quality standards.
|Fermentation vessel in a factory
Production and packaging of insulin pens
Images courtesy of Novo Nordisk